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Titles: Quote Marks, Italics, Underlining, or Naked?

Articles > Titles

Remember the days when your manual typewriter didn’t have a key for the number 1, so you used a lowercase letter L instead? And to type an exclamation point, you typed an apostrophe first, backspaced, and then typed a period beneath it? Sure you do, punk.

Clarification: I’m not that old; my high school was poor. We pasted our newspaper dummies together with wax and made type changes with a dull razor.

Well, we don’t type that way anymore, because technology has blessed us with 1s and !s on our keyboards. Likewise, because we are capable of rendering type in italics, you underline titles only when writing them by hand or using software that doesn’t italicize. As long as you remember that underlining equals italics and to never underline when you can italicize, you’re good.

You can get pretty far by following the “Big/heavy equals italics” (like books) and “Small/light equals quotes” (like poems) generalizations.

As for enclosing titles in quotation marks or italicizing them, you can get pretty far by following the “Big/heavy equals italics” (like books) and “Small/light equals quotes” (like poems) generalizations, but Associated Press style doesn’t italicize nothin’ and Chicago style has layers of specificity and if-then statements. Fun!

Because the Associated Press stylebook is not indexed and the manual for Chicago style covers title style in several sections (intermixed with name style and capitalization style), some title styles may have been inadvertently omitted due to oblivion on my part. Please send me a note if any oversight makes you twitch.

It’s all arbitrary, so go for clarity and sustainability.

Following is the breakdown between AP style and Chicago style. This is intended as a quick rundown or cheat sheet; for examples of each, please refer to the pages and sections indicated. “Neither” means that the usual headline-style (or title-style) caps still apply, but the title/name is naked as far as quotes and italics are concerned. (Capitalization for titles will be covered in a future blog entry.)

Note: Use Command-F or Ctrl-F to perform searches.

 

Titles for . . . AP Chicago
Albums Quotes (p. 62) Italics (8.192)
Almanacs Neither (p. 62)
Apps Neither (p. 62), e.g., Facebook, Foursquare Italics (8.193)
Art Quotes (p. 62) Italics (8.193)
Articles Quotes (8.175)
Bible Neither (p. 62)
Blog entries Quotes (8.187)
Blogs Italics (8.187)
Books Quotes (p. 62)—but the Bible and catalogs of reference material use neither Italics (8.166)—but book series and editions use neither (8.174)
Cartoons Italics (8.194)
Catalogs Neither (p. 62)
Chapters Quotes (8.175)
Classical music, nicknames Quotes (p. 63)
Classical music, identified by sequence Neither (p. 63)
Columns (in periodicals) Neither (8.175, 14.205)
Comic strips Italics (8.194)
Computer games and computer-game apps Quotes (p. 62), e.g., “Farmville” Italics (Chicago Style Q&A)
Computer software Neither for software such as WordPerfect or Windows (p. 62)
Conferences Neither (8.69)—unless it has “status,” then use quotes
Departments (in periodicals) Neither (8.175, 14.202)
Dictionaries Neither (p. 62)
Directories Neither (p. 62)
Drawings Italics (8.193)
Encyclopedias Neither (p. 62)
Essays Quotes (8.175)
Exhibitions (large) Neither (8.195)
Exhibitions (small) Italics (8.195)
Fairs (large) Neither (8.195)
Fairs (small) Italics (8.195)
Gazetteers Neither (p. 62)
Handbooks Neither (p. 62)
Journals Italics (8.166)—unless part of name of award, organization, etc. (8.170)
Lecture series Neither (8.86)
Lectures (individual) Quotes (p. 62) Quotes (8.86)
Magazines Neither (p. 159) Italics (8.166)—unless part of name of award, organization, etc. (8.170)
Meetings Neither (8.69)—unless it has “status,” then use quotes
Movies Quotes (p. 62) Italics (8.185)
Newspapers Italics (8.166)—unless part of name of award, organization, etc. (8.170)
Operas Quotes (p. 62) Italics (8.189)—for long musical compositions or instrumental works, see 8.189-8.190
Paintings Italics (8.193)
Pamphlets Italics (8.193)
Periodicals Italics (8.166), unless part of name of award, organization, etc. (8.170)
Photographs Italics (8.193)
Plays Quotes (p. 62) Italics (8.181)
Podcast episodes Quotes (8.187)
Podcasts Italics (8.187)
Poems Quotes (p. 62) Quotes (8.179)—unless book length, then treated as book (italics)
Radio episodes (in series) Quotes (8.185)
Radio programs and series Quotes (p. 62) Italics (8.185)
Reports Italics (8.193)
Short stories Quotes (8.175)
Songs Quotes (p. 62) Quotes (8.189)
Speeches Quotes (p. 62) Neither (8.75)—unless it has “status,” then use quotes.
Statues Italics (8.193)
Television episodes (in series) Quotes (8.185)
Television programs and series Quotes (p. 62) Italics (8.185)
Unpublished works Quotes (8.184)
Video blogs Italics (8.187)
Video-blog episodes Quotes (8.187)
Web pages and sections Quotes (8.186)
Websites Neither (8.186)

When it gets confusing, just remember these golden rules of copyediting:

  1. Whatever you choose, be consistent.
  2. But beware of having a tin ear.
  3. It’s all arbitrary, so go for clarity and sustainability.

Good luck.

Different Goals, Different Styles: Why AP and Chicago Are Not Friends

Articles > Different Goals, Different Styles

AP and Chicago have very clear yet conflicting intentions, often producing diametrically opposed styles.

If I think of AP as governing “fast content” (newspapers, online articles) and Chicago as governing “slow content” (books, some periodicals), you can see how the different styles grew from different needs.

The different styles grew from different needs.

Main differences in concerns and goals:

  • Layout: With newspaper columns (and online articles), you cannot always control where the break comes at the end of the line, whereas book and magazine publishers can fiddle with kerning, tracking, horizontal scaling, and soft returns, like, forever. Why this matters: Spaces around an em dash will allow it to break across two lines instead of dragging the words before and after it to the next line. Graphic designers working on a magazine article can, instead, manually insert a break after the dash and take their time making things look purdy.
  • Deadlines: Most dailies and many weeklies are constantly under deadline. Having several nuanced style options to choose from will make the editors kill themselves, and that level of clarity is seen as excessive. The other camp, however, has more time to clarify a thought and nitpick its presentation.
  • Compatibility: Ever get an e-mail with weird characters throughout? For copy to travel well—say, from final draft to wire to computer to publication—it must stay intact through its incarnations, with all intended letters, spaces, and punctuation in place. This places a premium on plainness, such as favoring characters over attributes (e.g., quote marks vs. italics). Non-journalistic content generally travels between fewer points and in the same form.

Otherwise kooky style rules come out looking quite reasonable when given the right context.

Maybe I just made all that up, but it sounds good, right? To me, it explains a whole lot, and otherwise kooky style rules come out looking quite reasonable when given the right context.

That’s me being positive.