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Apostrophe-S vs. Apostrophe: Forming Possessives of Words Ending in S (or an S Sound)

Articles > Apostrophe-S vs. Apostrophe

I’m going to focus on the difference between how The Associated Press Stylebook and The Chicago Manual of Style handle possessives for words ending in s or an s sound. In short, is it Carlos’ stylebook or Carlos’s stylebook?

Both AP and Chicago styles take pronunciation into account, handling new syllables formed by back-to-back sibilants in their own way. The style that many of us are accustomed to—simply adding an apostrophe after the s (e.g., moss’ growth) regardless of how the words sound—is a “formerly more common” alternative practice, according to Chicago, one which it does not recommend. But just between you and me, you can use this shoot-from-the-hip style in personal e-mail, where you are also free to forgo capitalization completely. (This may or may not be a test.)

Whereas quote marks can face left or right, apostrophes only face one way.

The punctuation mark that most often gets mixed up with the apostrophe, by my estimation, is the single quotation mark. If smart (or curly) quote marks are toggled on, beware of employing a beginning single quote mark (6-shaped) to do the job of an apostrophe (9-shaped): Whereas quote marks can face left or right, apostrophes only face one way. (Tip: Remember the mark in don’t, or think of a backwards c.) Prepare to battle text-editing software which defaults to a beginning single quote mark when you begin a paragraph with an apostrophe or key it in after a space, such as for ’80s, ’tis, ’cause, or rock ’n’ roll (apostrophes, all of them).

General Rules for Forming Possessives

Plural Common Nouns Ending in S

AP and Chicago: Add an apostrophe—jinx!

  • the students’ questions
  • the teachers’ headaches

Singular Common Nouns Ending in S

AP: Add apostrophe-s unless the next word begins with s.

Chicago: Add apostrophe-s.

  • the duchess’s hat
  • the duchess’s style

Proper Nouns Ending in S

AP: Add an apostrophe.

  • Charlaine Harris’ books
  • the Joneses’ competition

Chicago: Add apostrophe-s if singular, and add an apostrophe if plural.

  • Socrates’s tea
  • the Obamas’ garden
  • Les’s moor

Nouns Plural in Form, Singular in Meaning

AP and Chicago: Add an apostrophe.

  • the series’ actors
  • the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences’ history

Special Case: Nouns Ending in an Unpronounced S

AP: Add an apostrophe.

  • Descartes’ thoughts

Chicago: Add apostrophe-s.

  • Camus’s existence
  • the debris’s cloud

Special Case: Singular Common Nouns Ending in S or an S Sound, Followed by a Word Beginning With S

AP: Add apostrophe.

  • for appearance’ sake
  • for conscience’ sake
  • for goodness’ sake

Chicago: Add an apostrophe if the word ends in s; otherwise, add apostrophe-s.

  • for appearance’s sake
  • for conscience’s sake
  • for goodness’ sake

Proper nouns ending in s follow previously stated styles (e.g., for Jesus’s sake in Chicago style).

Exception: Company Names With Apostrophe-S

AP: Use as is.

  • McDonald’s profits (not McDonald’s’ profits)

So, to answer the question posed in the beginning (Carlos’ stylebook or Carlos’s stylebook?), the first is in AP style, the second is in Chicago style. Let’s hope that Carlos picked the right stylebook.

Sources

  • AP, 2011: “apostrophe”; “Ask the Editor
  • CMOS, 16th edition: possessives, 7.15-21

Slashes: Uses and Restrictions

Articles > Slashes

Misunderstood. Abused. Ignored.

No, not me. Well, maybe that, too, but I’m referring to the beleaguered slash, which you may know as a diagonal, virgule, solidus, slant, stroke, oblique stroke, separatrix, shilling mark, or forward slash (that low-self-esteem retronym which seeks to distinguish the slash [/] from the backslash [\]).

With this many names and almost as many roles—like providing alternatives, adding, abbreviating, separating, joining—the slash is like the understudy who also prints the flyers and strikes the set with the stagehands. Even so, The Associated Press Stylebook chose to exclude the slash from the “Punctuation” section, acknowledging it with a thirty-word chin nod in the main section instead. (It could be worse: The en dash was completely forsaken.)

[In AP style,] slashes are acceptable only in certain phrases and “special situations,” such as with fractions.

It may surprise you to learn that the most common usage of the slash, as a signifier of alternatives/options/choices, has been barred in AP style; slashes are acceptable only in certain phrases and “special situations,” such as with fractions. A heavy user of slashes and other intoxicating punctuation such as semicolons, I do admit to relying upon them to organize the contents of my brain when I’m in a hurry. And why not? They’re free, and I can use the time I’m saving for more important tasks, like chewing properly.

Slashes: Differences Between AP and Chicago Style

AP: We never said that slashes are tacky or that using them is lazy, but we’re cool with those inferences. Here are the acceptable uses.

  • With fractions
  • Between lines of quoted poetry
  • In Internet addresses (URLs) and pathnames
  • In descriptive phrases such as 24/7 or 9/11
  • In the signoff (credit) in photo captions

AP doesn’t explain this, but in the stylebook, the slash is also used in abbreviations such as TCP/IP and NAA/IPTC.

In the 14th edition (1993) of The Chicago Manual of Style, the slash was listed under “solidus” and was summed up in one paragraph. Cute, right? It didn’t make the first edition, in 1906, but that was a two-hundred-page baby compared to today’s thousand-page sumo wrestler.

Chicago: We love our versatile little friend. Here are some of its uses.

  • With fractions
  • Between lines of quoted poetry
  • In Internet addresses (URLs) and pathnames
  • To signify or or and/or
  • With two-year spans, e.g., 1991/92 (instead of an en dash)
  • With dates (informal), e.g., 6/1/11
  • In abbreviations, e.g., $7/hour (instead of per) and c/o (instead of a period)

So that’s the nitty-gritty of slashes and style.

When in doubt, ditch the spaces and you’ll be right most of the time.

Now, let’s talk about how to render a slash in certain contexts to improve readability, which is, after all, the heart of copyediting. (Or the lungs. Some vital organ.) Non-editors tend to either compulsively add spaces around all slashes or close them all up. When in doubt, ditch the spaces and you’ll be right most of the time; however, Chicago has an option for handling open compounds (two or more words separated by a space, e.g., copy editor) that offers more flexibility and clarity—totally worth memorizing. More on that coming up.

General Rule for Using Spaces With Slashes

In most cases, there are no spaces on either side of the slash. This is especially true for unique (read: inflexible) constructions such as directory paths and filenames, where our use of the slash is driven by requirement, not style.

Brief rant: There’s a rogue slash style making the rounds, usually on résumés, for some reason: no space before the slash but one after. I’m not impressed by this. It’s a red flag that points to poor decision-making more than anything else; even if executed consistently, it isn’t a style which showcases a copy editor’s skills. Rather, it may expose them as a street editor (as in any schmoe off the street). Not that I don’t appreciate this heads-up.

Exception: Quoted Poetry

AP: To show line breaks when quoting poetry in running text, use a slash between the lines, with a space before and after the slashes.

Chicago: Ditto. And when quoting more than one stanza in running text, insert two slashes [//] between the stanzas.

Although Chicago discusses this explicitly, AP actually doesn’t say anything about putting spaces around slashes for quoting poetry—only that slashes can be used to denote “the ends of a line in quoted poetry.” Good enough for me!

Exception: Open Compounds

Chicago: If one or both of the terms separated by the slash consist of two or more words, a space before and after the slash may aid comprehension.

This option really appeals to me, because it helps to visually group an open compound, making it clear that words beyond the ones immediately surrounding the slash are part of the thoughts being weighed.

The 15th edition had prescribed a thin space before and after; in the 16th edition, we’ve graduated to a full space, certainly a more realistic option for writers, editors, and typesetters. (Spacing slashes was not even addressed in the 14th edition.) I applaud this move towards simplicity and am looking forward to a thinner edition in CMOS’ next incarnation. Well, I can dream, at least.

I applaud this move towards simplicity and am looking forward to a thinner edition in CMOS’ next incarnation.

Sources

  • AP, 2011: “slash” and “Internet”; “Photo Captions” section
  • CMOS, 16th edition: slashes, 6.103-110; periods with abbreviations, 10.4; running in more than one stanza of poetry, 13.32

Em Dashes and Ellipses: Closed or Spaced Out?

Articles > Em Dashes and Ellipses

You might be wondering why I’ve paired the em dash with the ellipsis. Doesn’t the em dash usually get grouped with the en dash and the hyphen? Or, less commonly, with the comma, the colon, and the parenthesis? Sure . . . but those set you up for a discussion on usage, not style. (Please consult your favorite grammar book or blog for notes on usage.) If you look at these marks with style in mind, the ellipsis is most similar to the em dash.

If you look at these marks with style in mind, the ellipsis is most similar to the em dash.

This is the basic difference in how ellipses are rendered in AP style and Chicago style:

AP (p. 369): An ellipsis consists of three periods, with a space before and after.

  • Hey, guys … what’re you all laughing about? Are you gonna eat that?

Chicago (13.48): An ellipsis consists of three spaced periods, with a space before and after.

  • Love is . . . retweeting.

So AP’s ellipsis is three dots shoved together, Chicago’s ellipsis is spaced out, and they both like spaces around the dots. Got it. A complication arises when people insist on using the ellipsis closed (i.e., without spaces between the dots). In that case, I recommend that you omit the space on both sides when attempting to follow Chicago style; this will match Chicago’s spacing preference for the em dash.

So AP’s ellipsis is three dots shoved together, Chicago’s ellipsis is spaced out, and they both like spaces around the dots. Got it.

I do hope that I’m the only one who works with account executives who make editorial decisions based on how pretty something looks rather than how much sense it makes. If not, let’s start a support group. We can sit around, looking forlorn but hopeful. The group will be called Hyphens Are Not Ugly.

There’s a part in The Chicago Manual of Style (13.48) which says that you, the writer, can use the three-dot glyph provided in word processors (Option-; or Alt-0133), but we, the editors, are just going to change it to the properly spaced version—with nonbreaking spaces between each period, of course. Nice. Likewise, if the author types two hyphens to represent an em dash, the double hyphen will be converted to a proper em dash. It’s quite janitorial in nature, but I suppose much of editing is.

If you begin a line with an em dash or ellipsis, the only reason you would insert a space before is to drive your editor nuts.

This is the basic difference in how em dashes are rendered in AP style and Chicago style:

AP (p. 368): An em dash, like an ellipsis, has a space before and after, except when used to introduce items in a vertical list.

  • When she called her cats — Chardonnay, Patron and Guinness — the neighbors came running.

Chicago (2.13): An em dash has no space before or after, unless you’re doing some fancy word-replacing maneuvers with a 2-em dash.

  • Glitter, felt, yarn, and buttons—his kitchen looked as if a clown had exploded.
  • Miss S—— killed Professor P—— with a candlestick in the study.

If you begin a line with an em dash or ellipsis, the only reason you would insert a space before is to drive your editor nuts.

It’s easy to remember which gets what space where if you make a connection between the style’s intent and the resulting style.

It’s easy to remember which gets what space where if you make a connection between the style’s intent and the resulting style. (See “Different Goals, Different Styles: Why AP and Chicago Are Not Friends.”) If AP style governs journalism, expect it to be condensed (hence the three unspaced dots for the ellipsis) and easily broken across two lines (via a space before and after the em dash and the ellipsis) to accommodate the space limitations and fast turnaround.

An enthusiastic subscriber to the four-dot-method ellipsis style (Chicago, 13.51), I was thrilled when I saw the period-plus-ellipsis construction in the copy the client provided. This is extremely rare in advertising; well, good grammar is extremely rare. Then, immediately, it was followed by sentences containing five dots and then eight dots. Then fourteen.

I burn through red pens quickly.

Titles: Quote Marks, Italics, Underlining, or Naked?

Articles > Titles

Remember the days when your manual typewriter didn’t have a key for the number 1, so you used a lowercase letter L instead? And to type an exclamation point, you typed an apostrophe first, backspaced, and then typed a period beneath it? Sure you do, punk.

Clarification: I’m not that old; my high school was poor. We pasted our newspaper dummies together with wax and made type changes with a dull razor.

Well, we don’t type that way anymore, because technology has blessed us with 1s and !s on our keyboards. Likewise, because we are capable of rendering type in italics, you underline titles only when writing them by hand or using software that doesn’t italicize. As long as you remember that underlining equals italics and to never underline when you can italicize, you’re good.

You can get pretty far by following the “Big/heavy equals italics” (like books) and “Small/light equals quotes” (like poems) generalizations.

As for enclosing titles in quotation marks or italicizing them, you can get pretty far by following the “Big/heavy equals italics” (like books) and “Small/light equals quotes” (like poems) generalizations, but Associated Press style doesn’t italicize nothin’ and Chicago style has layers of specificity and if-then statements. Fun!

Because the Associated Press stylebook is not indexed and the manual for Chicago style covers title style in several sections (intermixed with name style and capitalization style), some title styles may have been inadvertently omitted due to oblivion on my part. Please send me a note if any oversight makes you twitch.

It’s all arbitrary, so go for clarity and sustainability.

Following is the breakdown between AP style and Chicago style. This is intended as a quick rundown or cheat sheet; for examples of each, please refer to the pages and sections indicated. “Neither” means that the usual headline-style (or title-style) caps still apply, but the title/name is naked as far as quotes and italics are concerned. (Capitalization for titles will be covered in a future blog entry.)

Note: Use Command-F or Ctrl-F to perform searches.

 

Titles for . . . AP Chicago
Albums Quotes (p. 62) Italics (8.192)
Almanacs Neither (p. 62)
Apps Neither (p. 62), e.g., Facebook, Foursquare Italics (8.193)
Art Quotes (p. 62) Italics (8.193)
Articles Quotes (8.175)
Bible Neither (p. 62)
Blog entries Quotes (8.187)
Blogs Italics (8.187)
Books Quotes (p. 62)—but the Bible and catalogs of reference material use neither Italics (8.166)—but book series and editions use neither (8.174)
Cartoons Italics (8.194)
Catalogs Neither (p. 62)
Chapters Quotes (8.175)
Classical music, nicknames Quotes (p. 63)
Classical music, identified by sequence Neither (p. 63)
Columns (in periodicals) Neither (8.175, 14.205)
Comic strips Italics (8.194)
Computer games and computer-game apps Quotes (p. 62), e.g., “Farmville” Italics (Chicago Style Q&A)
Computer software Neither for software such as WordPerfect or Windows (p. 62)
Conferences Neither (8.69)—unless it has “status,” then use quotes
Departments (in periodicals) Neither (8.175, 14.202)
Dictionaries Neither (p. 62)
Directories Neither (p. 62)
Drawings Italics (8.193)
Encyclopedias Neither (p. 62)
Essays Quotes (8.175)
Exhibitions (large) Neither (8.195)
Exhibitions (small) Italics (8.195)
Fairs (large) Neither (8.195)
Fairs (small) Italics (8.195)
Gazetteers Neither (p. 62)
Handbooks Neither (p. 62)
Journals Italics (8.166)—unless part of name of award, organization, etc. (8.170)
Lecture series Neither (8.86)
Lectures (individual) Quotes (p. 62) Quotes (8.86)
Magazines Neither (p. 159) Italics (8.166)—unless part of name of award, organization, etc. (8.170)
Meetings Neither (8.69)—unless it has “status,” then use quotes
Movies Quotes (p. 62) Italics (8.185)
Newspapers Italics (8.166)—unless part of name of award, organization, etc. (8.170)
Operas Quotes (p. 62) Italics (8.189)—for long musical compositions or instrumental works, see 8.189-8.190
Paintings Italics (8.193)
Pamphlets Italics (8.193)
Periodicals Italics (8.166), unless part of name of award, organization, etc. (8.170)
Photographs Italics (8.193)
Plays Quotes (p. 62) Italics (8.181)
Podcast episodes Quotes (8.187)
Podcasts Italics (8.187)
Poems Quotes (p. 62) Quotes (8.179)—unless book length, then treated as book (italics)
Radio episodes (in series) Quotes (8.185)
Radio programs and series Quotes (p. 62) Italics (8.185)
Reports Italics (8.193)
Short stories Quotes (8.175)
Songs Quotes (p. 62) Quotes (8.189)
Speeches Quotes (p. 62) Neither (8.75)—unless it has “status,” then use quotes.
Statues Italics (8.193)
Television episodes (in series) Quotes (8.185)
Television programs and series Quotes (p. 62) Italics (8.185)
Unpublished works Quotes (8.184)
Video blogs Italics (8.187)
Video-blog episodes Quotes (8.187)
Web pages and sections Quotes (8.186)
Websites Neither (8.186)

When it gets confusing, just remember these golden rules of copyediting:

  1. Whatever you choose, be consistent.
  2. But beware of having a tin ear.
  3. It’s all arbitrary, so go for clarity and sustainability.

Good luck.

Initials: Tips for Remembering Style

Articles > Initials

You’d think that a post covering initials would be about seven words long, but, as always, Chicago has a lot to say.

Chicago: Periods, space! Except when . . . crap.

  • L. R. R. Hood (10.12)
  • FDR (initials used alone, 8.4)
  • MJ (entire name abbreviated, 10.12)
  • President O. (name abbreviated, 7.62)
  • J.-P. Sartre (hyphenated name, 8.7)
  • H.D. (special case for pen name, 14.73)

AP (p. 142): Periods, no space. I win!

  • L.J. Horner

Chicago separates initials with a space, like you would with a spelled-out name.

Here’s a tip on how to remember this basic distinction (space or no space):

  • Chicago separates initials with a space, like you would with a spelled-out name.
  • Due to the nature of newspapers and web pages, AP runs initials together to prevent them from accidentally breaking across two lines.

For Chicago style, to keep the initials together (with space intact), either manually insert a line break before or after the set of initials—preferably before, to keep the entire name together—or use a nonbreaking space between the letters.

AP runs initials together to prevent them from accidentally breaking across two lines.

At least AP and Chicago are both in agreement about not dividing initials, so let’s end on that high note.